Atom is the Smallest part of the element. Proton, neutron, and electrons are fundamental particles of an atom. The core of the atom is known as a nucleus. The nucleus is made up of proton and neutron. Protons are particles which have a positive charge and neutrons have no charge as per name neutrons are neutral.
Particles around the nucleus are known as the electrons. Electrons have a negative charge. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in different orbits in an elliptical shape. A diameter of the atom is 10-10 m. And the diameter of the nucleus is 10-15 m. Mass of proton and neutrons are same. Electrons are very light particles on other side proton and neutrons are heavier than electrons, protons and neutrons are 1837 times heavier than the electrons. That’s why the mass of an atom is mainly due to the mass of protons and neutrons.
Mass of an electron is 9.1*10-31 kg and its charge is 1.6*10-19 coulomb. The properties of different elements are different because of the number protons, electrons and neutrons are different. But in any atom number of protons and neutrons are remain the same, Number of electrons is changed according to the element.
The study of atomic structure is important to understand the basic electronics. Bohr’s atomic model explains the structure of the atom in every detail so now let’s see the Bohr atomic model keep continue your reading.
Bohr’s Atomic Model:-
Neils Bohr was a Danish physicist, who was considered as the father of quantum mechanics. For his contribution to the science, Carlsberg brewing company decided to give him the house which is connected to the brewery by pipeline. So Neils Bohr was rewarded with a lifetime supply of free beer.
In 1913 Neils Bohr gave a clear explanation of the atomic structure. According to the Bohr’s model:-
- An atom consists of a positively charged nucleus. Around this Nucleus, negatively charged electrons revolve in different circular orbits.
- The electrons can revolve around the nucleus in a fixed orbit. These orbits are known as stationary orbits. Orbits are denoted by ‘n’ latter.
- The electrons in each orbit have a fixed amount of energy. The larger the orbit having a greater amount of energy.
- If an electron is given additional energy means when heat, light is bombarded on the electron, It is lifted from lower orbit to the higher orbit. This state is called state of excitation. To regain stability electron must fall back to the original lower orbit. As it falls it gives back the acquired energy in the form of light.
- Bohrs Found that Energy of the emitted photon is equal to the difference of the two energy level from which the electrons are lifted. Which is express as E2 – E1=hv, here
E2=Energy level of the first orbit,
E1=Energy level of the second orbit,
h=Constant,V=velocity of light.
- Absorption Take place when an electron transit from a lower orbit to the higher orbit. The energy level occupied by an electron is called the ground state.
- The motion of electrons depends on the angular momentum of an electron. Angular momentum is defined as follow:
Here m is the mass, V is the velocity and r is the radius of the orbit.h represents Planck’s constant and n represent a positive integer.