Conducting materials are widely used in electrical and electronics components. According to the properties of the conducting materials, a cost may be changed. To make the particular device you have to make a proper choice of material. Therefore it is essential to know the properties of the different materials. So now let’s see the classification of the materials.
Classification of the materials:
Different types of materials are used in varieties of ways. We use different electrical and electronic appliances in our everyday life. All these appliances made up of different materials. Various materials can be classified as below:
Materials which allow the electric current to pass through them are called the conducting materials. Conducting materials have very low resistivity and high electrical conductivity. Copper, aluminum, grass, gold are examples of the conducting materials. We find many applications of this kind of materials. Few to mention are copper and aluminum conductors in wires and cables, copper clad sheet in printed circuit boards, overhead line conductors, winding of electrical machines, busbars in generating stations and substations etc.
The materials which can allow the magnetic flux to pass through them are known as the magnetic materials. Steel, permalloy, ferrite, silicon steel, cobalt, nickel etc are examples of magnetic materials. magnetic materials are widely used in electrical and electronic components. These are used as the core of electric machines, Transformers, and chokes in loudspeakers, reed relays, proximity switches, magnetic shielding of the circuits etc.
The materials which do not allow the electric current to pass through them are known as the insulating materials. Insulating materials have high resistivity and very poor conductivity. Wood, rubber, glass, mica, PVC, Ceramic are some of the insulating materials used in practice. These are used in insulation of electric wires and cables, base and top of the electric switches and fuse, knobs of the electronic appliances and base of the printed circuit boards cabinet of the appliances, connectors etc.
Materials which have resistivity not as low as that of conductor and not as high as that of the insulator are known as the semiconducting materials. Silicon, germanium, Selenium, gallium arsenide are examples of the semiconducting materials are widely used in electronic devices like a diode, transistor,diac,traic, FET, integrated circuits etc.